Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent intensivecare unit (ICU)-acquired infection for patients on mechanical ventilators. There are no goal standards for VAP diagnosis and this makes it the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. The prediction of its outcome is important in the decision-making process and management. This article reviews the various aspects of VAP such as definition, risk factors, etiological agents, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention with emphasis on the recent advances.
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